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Overview

PACERS, Inc is excited to introduce you to the C-ADDS - a new and exciting ADHD screening instrument. C-ADDS is uniquely organized into 10 short subtests varying in response formats. These subtests were designed to assess attention and executive functions such as selective attention, concentration, working memory, and inhibitory control. The paper and pencil version of the C-ADDS comes to you with a colorful activity sheet, 25 attractive record forms, and a set of two superbly illustrated spiral bound books that are beautifully presented with full color gloss paperbacks. The test booklet has a triangle easel stand for easy administration. The test is culture reduced and user-friendly. It is simple to administer, easy to score, and reasonably priced. There is now an online web application which allows you to take the test on any computer with the appropriate specifications.

To take the Diagnostic Screening test, click on the link below.:






 

Purposes of C-ADDS

The Carlisle – Attention Deficit Diagnostic System (C-ADDS) is a highly standardized norm-referenced instrument designed to give psychologists, counselors, and social workers an opportunity to be more directly involved in the micro-diagnostic screening of ADHD children. More specifically, it was developed for the following reasons; 1) for the diagnostic screening of children with attention and executive functioning deficits, 2) to assist in the determination of eligibility for specialized instruction and support, 3) to guide in the development of IEP goals, and 4) to guide teachers with respect to instructional approaches, modes of instruction, and classroom management procedures.

 

Development/Content

C-ADDS was developed through logical/empirical techniques and was norm on a sufficiently large sample of persons who have the diagnostic characteristics and for whom the test will be utilized in the future. The test and its related activity sheet are multi-colored and very attractive. It contains 10 subtest; Letter Sequencing, Numerical Operations, Sequencing, Coding, Listening Concentration, Color Sequencing, Object Sequencing, Attention for Sequencing, Selective Attention, and Sentence Repetition. The generation and selection of the subtest items and the development of the 10 subtests were based on the notion that, regardless of age or gender, individuals with attention and executive functioning deficits demonstrate a subset of a range of similar behaviors to varying degrees. It is this theoretical foundation with respect to the description/manifestation of these ADHD-type behaviors that guided in the selection of the items that constitute the C-ADDS.



 

Standardization

C-ADDS was standardized on 1114 children ages 6 through16 from the South-Western Michigan and Northern Indiana areas.  There were 557 diagnosed ADHD subjects and 557 match-paired subjects.  All selected subjects were from the general population.  There were 728 males and 386 females.  The standardized sample included 70.65% Caucasian, 19.12% Blacks, 8.35% Hispanics, and 1.89% of other ethnic origins.



 

Proper Use

It is important that the C-ADDS be used with other diagnostic information-gathering methods such as case history, clinical observation, and direct/indirect assessment tools.  When used alone, the C-ADDS is intended solely as a screening device to determine the likelihood that an individual has ADHD or otherwise severe limitations in the areas of attention and executive functioning. When used in conjunction with other related test, C-ADDS has admirable diagnostic capabilities.  Information from C-ADDS may also be used to guide teachers with respect to instructional methodologies and modes of instruction that may bring about maximum results in these at-risk children.  The instrument is user-friendly and may be used by para-professionals.  However, the responsibility for its administration, scoring, and interpretation should be assumed by qualified individuals who have been trained in psychological testing.



 

Limitations

C-ADDS has a few specific limitations; 1) Standardization procedures were conducted on subjects from within a narrow geographical location, 2) Testing in a “sterile” environment is required for best results, 3) over-learned responses to specific task on the test may present false positives and a child’s resistance to testing (reluctant client) may present false negatives, and 4) the Sequencing subtest was statistically recommended for removal in the pilot (Dissertation phase) because of its low reliability coefficient (0.454) and, hence, only the remaining nine subtest are scored as part of C-ADDS test.

  

Reliability

Despite these limitations, the reliabilities of the subtests were well within an acceptable range (.69 < r >0.96) with an average reliability of 0.80. The inter-subtest correlation matrix indicated evidence of relatively high test-validity. The strong inter-correlations/relationships among the subtest are good indications that the items in each subtest are measuring a common construct - some underlying behavioral characteristics of ADHD. The validity of C-ADDS was demonstrated through a series of analyses. These analyses confirmed that (a) the items of C-ADDS are representative of the characteristic of ADHD; (b) the subsets are strongly related to each other, (c) C-ADDS can separate ADHD subjects from non-ADHD subjects in the general population, and (d) C-ADDS has 4 principal components (Working Memory, Selective Attention, Inhibitory Control/ Impulsivity and Cognitive Flexibility) presumed to be important substructures of the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.